## The Odds

How many ways can you pick one word from 33? How many ways can two words be picked (or three, or four, or *N* words)? The total number of unique ways words can be picked from the passage is: 8,589,934,591.

The first time you pick, you have 33 to choose from. After selecting one word from the list, there remain only 32 words. For your next choice, you have 32 ways to pick your second word. Thus to pick *just two words* from the list, you have 33 x 32 *permutations* or ways (33 x 32 = 1056).

Your *first* choice could have been the first word, and your *second* choice could have been the second word. *But you could have picked the second word first.* If you were not concerned with the order in which you selected the words, but only with the unique *combination* of words, then pulling the second word first would make no difference than pulling the first word first. In this case, you would divide 1056 by 2 (*the number of ways these two words could have been selected*). The number of *combinations* would be 1056 ÷ 2 = 528.

(*Calculating the number of ways words could be selected* is very similar to figuring out how many ways to pick *N* words from the list. If there are two words, then there can only be two ways to pick them: A and then B, or B and then A. If there were three words it would be 3 x 2. If there were four words, it would be 4 x 3 x 2.)

As can be seen, just picking two words from 33 already gives a large number. The total (8,589,934,591) in the first paragraph can be calculated step by step.

33 ÷ 1 33 x 32 ÷ 2 33 x 32 x 31 ÷ (3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 ÷ (4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 ÷ (5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 ÷ (6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 ÷ (7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 ÷ (8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 ÷ (9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 ÷ (10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 ÷ (11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 ÷ (12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 ÷ (13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 ÷ (14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 ÷ (15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 ÷ (16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 ÷ (17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 ÷ (18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 ÷ (19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 ÷ (20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 ÷ (21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 ÷ (22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 ÷ (23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 ÷ (24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 ÷ (25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 ÷ (26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 ÷ (27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 ÷ (28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 ÷ (29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 ÷ (30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 ÷ (31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2) 33 x 32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 ÷ (32 x 31 x 30 x 29 x 28 x 27 x 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 x 16 x 15 x 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2)

No I did not calculate that by hand. If you have a scientific calculator, the press of a few buttons will give you the combinations or permutations. ☺

One in seven of the 8,589,934,591 possibilities *will likely* be divisible by seven: 1,227,133,513. (A billion of them!) Why? Because every seventh number is divisible by 7. Finding many features divisible by seven is *guaranteed*.

When the possibilities are considered for larger numbers (e.g. 119), the combinations/permutations are even greater: 6.646 x 10^{35}. In this case, 9.494 x 10^{34} features divisible by seven are likely.

In essence, the more words (or letters) in the passage, the stronger the guarantee numeric features divisible by 7 will be found. This also applies to numeric features divisible by any other number.

Now if the odds indicate numeric features naturally abound, then what is so special about Bible Numbers? Are they not an exercise in futility, discovering what the odds simply state? If Bible Numbers are presented merely as a list of interesting features and have no stated reason for existing then it is a waste of time. The numeric features alone are meaningless. Numeric features must have a purpose other than demonstrating the mathematical laws of the universe.

This leads us to the major weakness of practically all Bible Numeric or Gematria studies. The reason why numeric patterns exist is left unsaid. Why is someone adding up the nouns? Why is someone adding up every third word? (Why aren't they adding up something else?) Why are two words or phrases related? Just because they add up to the same thing? What about all the other words in existence that add up to the same thing? They may claim inspiration by the Holy Spirit. Who can check their claim? *There must be a reason independent of self that everyone can see.*

Just assuming numeric features exist to praise God does not prove that they do. Claiming that a group of features is significant because they are all divisible by 7 (or by some other number) is simply circular reasoning. It may appear obvious to a believer, but this is merely the statistical odds to an unbeliever.

Evolutionists are aware of the odds against intelligent life, but they insist a series of coincidences is possible over billions of years and billions of galaxies.^{1} No God is necessary. This is the same argument against Bible Numbers. Throughout history, all the world's literature amounts to millions of books, magazines, documents, papers..., and trillions of sentences. The odds are highly in favour of numeric features. Without a proven reason to support the numbers, one cannot say God made them.

Since most numeric studies give no reasons for what they are doing and set no rules of what they are searching for, they just list a wide variety of features and present totally different techniques for each verse. They cannot disprove coincidence. They can't even say whether the same features might not exist in other literature. *The skeptics rightly dismiss Bible Numerics/Gematria because they know numeric features exist naturally.*

At the point of this writing, and to the knowledge of this author, no other Bible Numeric or Gematria study offers reasons for the existence of numeric features. Their work is unsupported by other Bible verses, do not facilitate interpretation, and do not expand our knowledge of God.

Mathematics tells us numeric features are possible. But it cannot tell us whether one in a thousand features (divisible by seven) would appear to make sense, or if it would take one in a billion. Mathematics cannot tell us how to construct a grammatically correct sentence that makes sense literally, figuratively and theologically. This leads to one inescapable conclusion. To prove the existence of God, the numeric features must not only have a reason, but also make sense grammatically, literally, figuratively and theologically. This is the one uniqueness of this study.

There is one final point to be made about the mathematical odds. Explaining why something is possible (or even highly probable) does not prove someone did not do it. Rocks falling off a cliff are a possibility, but sometimes someone pushed them. Just because it is very likely that numeric features will be found, *does not automatically mean God was not behind them*.

How are we to know when God is behind them? How do we know it wasn’t just rocks naturally falling off a cliff?

We know from the *meaning* that can be derived from the numeric features. We know it is not chance when another verse describes the feature and also has similar meaning.

Meaning also includes context. The words made in USA

(printed in, manufactured in etc) can be found all over the world. Most of the time in everyday life, they are innocuous and have little meaning other than a point of origin. Unless one is a book collector, printed in

or first edition

is not noticed by a reader. They become significant and meaningful depending on context. In *economic terms* proliferation of made in China

demonstrates the productivity of China, or the demand for Chinese goods. Made in

becomes a health concern when product recalls occur. Everything requires context.

Claiming numeric features exist all over the place and concluding Bible Numbers prove nothing is like rejecting the bullet that killed John F. Kennedy because bullets can be found everywhere. It is similar to looking at the phrase Made in USA

. There is no context. It is like apples falling from a tree. But when Isaac Newton put it into context, falling apples demonstrated the law of gravitation. (*Don't throw the baby out with the bath water!*)

1.It is reasonable to expect rocks to fall from an unstable cliff. And the more precarious it is, the less likely one would say God did it. On the other hand, it is *unreasonable* to expect to win the jackpot of a major lottery. The greater the odds against winning, the less reasonable it would be to expect to win. The odds against life forming from chemicals is astronomically high. Thus evolution is inherently unreasonable.