Bible Numbers 2.0

Part 6: Alpha & Omega
(Revelation 1:8; 啟 示 錄 1:8)

(可 惜 這 頁 沒 有 中 文 繙 譯)

Both versions of Revelation 1:8 in Greek (GNS and GNT) had very few number features following the pattern of The Proclamation. For a verse so instrumental to discovering numeric features throughout the Bible, it seems odd there wasn't more. The following might be the reason why.

Although the GNS and GNT agree most of the time, Revelation 1:8 is one verse where they do not.

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. (Revelation 1:8 KJV)

I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. (Revelation 1:8 RSV)

The same occurs again in Revelation 1:11.

Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. (Revelation 1:11 KJV)

saying, "Write what you see in a book and send it to the seven churches, to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea." (Revelation 1:11 RSV)

This difference might be the reason why Revelation 1:8 in Greek has so few features. It makes the serious believer wonder if one is correct, or more correct, or if one is incorrect. And of course, which one is supposed to be used for numbers Numerics Gematria?1

Perhaps it is not a matter of one being right, or more right. Perhaps it was a matter of time, just as the numeric features for The Proclamation took until this author's lifetime to be discovered. This is where the Chinese version enters the picture. (Two popular Chinese versions are given below.)2

Version One

主 神 說 我 是 阿 拉 法 我 是 俄 梅 戛昔 在 今 在 以 後 永 在 的 全 能 者
(啟 示 錄 1:83 CUVMPT; Highlight added.)

Green highlights the Chinese characters transliterating the Greek letters Alpha and Omega. The blue section marks out was, is, is to come (which is not the order in the original Greek).

Revelation 1:8 (啟 示 錄 1:8 CUVMPT3)
lordgodspokeIam"A1
"A1
Laai4
La1
Faat1"
Fa3"
Iam"Ngoh4
"E2
Muih4
Mei2
Aat1"
Jia2"
am/isformerly/was
now/presentto come/futureforever (present)(noun modifier4)
Cantonese/Mandarin transliteration of Alpha & Omega. Numbers represent tone marks (Yale/PinYin).
all/completecapabilityperson/one

As can be seen, transliterating a language that uses an alphabet to a language with no alphabet leaves much to be desired. Syllables and sounds could be added or missing. It is clear the translators were using Mandarin rather than Cantonese.

Version Two

主 神 說 我 就 是 阿 爾 法 也 是 歐 米 伽今 在 昔 在 將 要 來 臨 的 那 一 位 是 全 能 者
(啟 示 錄 1:8 CSBT; Highlight added.)

Different words are used for the transliteration (green). Blue highlights is, was, is to come following the order in the original Greek. And the grey section is the (or that) one (or only one) who is. This phrase could go with the blue section before it, or with the words after it.

The words highlighted in yellow emphasize the I am. The word ego (Εγω) appears in the Greek of Revelation 1:8 right at the beginning of the sentence I am. It is only used for emphasis. The translators for this version of the Chinese Bible noticed this and included it.

Revelation 1:8 (啟 示 錄 1:8 CSBT)
lordgodspokeIprecisely
(emphatic)
am"A1
"A1
Yih2
Er3
Faat1"
Fa3"
and/
also
am"Ngau4
"Ou1
Maih2
Mi3
Ga4"
Jia1"
is
am
now/
today
presentformerlywasfuturemustcomenear(noun modifier)
thatone/
only
personisall/completecapabilityperson/one

The transliterations for Alpha and Omega remain problematical. There are many Chinese words with the exact same sounds, but none of them will render closer approximations of the original Greek. In this case, the sounds for Alpha have deteriorated.

We eliminate version one from consideration because the order of time does not follow the original Greek, and the translation lacks the opening emphasis of I am. Version two can be brought closer to the original Greek with a few changes.

  1. 主 神 (jyu sahn; lord god) is technically correct in following the Greek, but doesn't work in Chinese.
  2. Revelation 1:8 is the twin of The Proclamation. Something in the text should indicate it is not just God speaking as in everyday speech. This would follow the Greek word λεγω for speaking (see below).
  3. A better transliteration must be found for Alpha and Omega.
  4. There is no I am between Alpha and Omega in the Greek. Thus the Chinese 也 是 (ya sih; and also am) could be a simple conjunction.
  5. Show the connection between God and is, was, is to come as something more than just the verb 是 (sih; to be).

Amendment 1

As pointed out for Exodus 34:6-7 and Genesis 1:1, 主 神 (jyu sahn; lord god) really should be replaced by 上 帝 (Seung Dai; lord god), the proper title for God in Chinese. 主 神 is a literal translation from the Greek κυριος ο θεος (kyrios ho theos; lord god), but the Chinese word 神 (sahn; god) refers to lesser spiritual beings and is entirely inappropriate for the one supreme God.

帝 (Dai) means Lord, as seen in the imperial title 皇 帝 (Wohng Dai). 帝 was borrowed by the first emperor Chin Shih Huang Ti because he needed something higher than a king after conquering all the states. 上 帝 (Seung Dai) has always meant the Highest Sovereign and it was understood to be God even in the absence of the word 神 (sahn; god).

Amendment 2

When one reads the first chapter of Revelation, verse 8 sticks out like a sore thumb. John introduces the subject of the end times from verses 1 to 6 with verse 7 about Jesus' return. The Alpha Omega verse appears out of nowhere with God Almighty interrupting John's narrative, and then John continues talking about himself. This in itself indicates verse 8 is very unique.

Revelation 1:8 GNT5
ΕγωειμιτοΑλφακαιτο
IamtheAlphaandthe
Ωλεγεικυριοςοθεοςο
Omegasayslordthegodthe
ωνκαιοηνκαιο
beingandthewasandthe
ερχομενοςοπαντοκρατωρ
is comingtheAlmighty

But it isn't just the abrupt placement of verse 8 that is unique. The Greek word λεγει (high-lighted in green) is also unique. The English words used for translating it (say, said, speak) don't really bring out the sense of this word. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance gives the meaning below.

G3004
λεγο
leg'-o
A primary verb; properly to lay forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean: - ask, bid, boast, call, describe, give out, name, put forth, say (-ing, on), shew, speak, tell, utter.

Translating λεγο into Chinese just with the word 說 (syut; to speak) is tolerable, but like the English leaves out much of the Greek meaning concerning a systematic statement/discourse. Since Revelation 1:8 and The Proclamation (Exodus 34:6-7) are like twin statements, to bring out the Greek meaning, one can borrow 宣 告 from The Proclamation to go with 說. This puts more emphasis on 說 so that it is more than just God speaking. Revelation 1:8 is a declaration in itself.

At the same time, the word λεγο is not like other Greek words similar to ευαγγελισαι (euaggelizo; to announce/proclaim good news) or διαγγελλε (deanggello; to herald thoroughly, to preach, to signify). It is not as public. The book of Revelation and the declaration in verse 8 was meant for Christians.

Amendment 3

The next problem is the transliteration of Α and Ω into Chinese. Since Chinese contains hundreds of words with the same sound, the possibilities for transliteration are practically endless. And yet all of them would be imperfect.

At the beginning of this study, I stated that God would not leave us floundering in an infinite sea of numbers. He would tell us how to find numeric features. A slightly similar situation applies with transliteration. While it is not God telling us how to transliterate, it is a method for bypassing transliteration completely. This is the other reason why Big5 is used for Chinese.

The modern age brought to light many disadvantages in the Chinese language. There were no chemical short forms, no conveniant mathematical symbols, and new technical terms were completely absent. There was no choice but to borrow signs and symbols from Western sources. Many of these proved useful and became accepted in the Chinese language.

The development of computers was no different. Because Hong Kong was a British colony, and Taiwan was heavily influenced by the U.S., computer development incorporated the 256 ASCII characters into Big5. Symbols or words that had gained acceptance like Σ were also included. And in the end, the whole Greek and English alphabets were included as well.

Since Greek letters are already in the character set, all that is necessary is to change the starting point for the count of the Big5 list. (The original starting point of Big5 Chinese characters was 42048. For Greek, the position is 41796.)

Coincidentally, making this change does not ruin the numeric features presented on the previous pages. Most features now have larger totals. A few disappear, and a few new features become possible.

With this change, it becomes possible to have a Chinese verse containing Greek letters. Greek letters might not have meant anything to Chinese people a century ago, but any educated Chinese today would have little difficulty recognizing, understanding or finding out what a Greek letter meant. The verse becomes a lot more accurate with the original Alpha and Omega.

There is also another reason for returning to the Greek letters, and this is because of the definite articles associated with the description of God’s qualities.

Unlike other Greek literature at that time, the New Testament writers chose to use the definite article extensively to make God, Jesus, the first Christians and other ideas stand out. It wasn't just any god they were talking about. It was the God. Most of this is lost in translation, and most of the time it doesn't matter. But sometimes it is critical (see the study on John 1:1).

But how is this to be translated into Chinese, a language with no definite article? The easiest way would be to import the actual Greek letters. These would have no equal in Chinese and be unique like the title 上 帝. They would require no Chinese specifiers, demonstrators or awkward word constructions.

Amendment 4

The Chinese translation has 就 是 Α 也 是 Ω (I am Alpha and also (I) am Omega). The original Greek simply has ειμι το Αλφα και το Ω (am the Alpha and the Omega). There is no second am before Ω. Thus 也 是 (and also am) can be replaced by the simple conjunction 和 (woh; and).

Amendment 5

In the middle of Revelation 1:8, the Greek lists three things, each with their own definite article: the being, the was, and the coming: ο ων και ο ην και ο ερχομενος. There is no verb unless it is understood. There is no am and there is no who is. But the Chinese has the verb is (highlighted in green): 今 在 昔 在 將 要 來 臨 的 …

The verb 是 (is, am) can be replaced by the character 係.

是 & 係 Compared
Is, are, be, to be; am; yes; right; positive; absolute.To connect with; a system; to be; relation; consequence.

是 and 係 are practically interchangeable. 我 係 is even used in Cantonese speech as I am. Replacing 是 with 係 after Ω allows the original verb meaning to stand (if necessary) and at the same time shows the connection or relationship between God and all time (present, past and future).

(Why not remove the phrase 那 一 位? This is clearly not in the original Greek. See Note 6.)

The Amended Verse

Revelation 1:8 with all five changes is given below.6

上 帝 宣 告 說 我 就 是 Α 和 Ω 係 今 在 昔 在 將 要 來 臨 的 那 一 位 是 全 能 者
(啟 示 錄 1:8)
Number Values For Revelation 1:8
ΑΩ
276219121781062623811754363231611546242070370799
1714799359526031424773619111399253937231669932291929
See: Alphanumeric Substitutions for converting Chinese to numbers.

Numeric Features

1.1There are 28 words (2 x 2 x 7. SF: 11 illustrating the one God beginning and end).

1.2Verse total: 55153 = 7 x 7879.

2.1Letters of the divine name in Hebrew applied directly to the words.

10   5    6    5
1546 6238 1175 6238

Total: 15197 = 7 x 13 x 167.

2.2Divine name run 13 times.

10   5    6    5   10   5   6    5   10   5  6    5    10   5 6
10   15   21   26  36   13  19   24  34   11 17   22   32   9 15
10   15   21   26  8    13  19   24  6    11 17   22   4    9 15
1546 1714 1911 699 2316 370 1424 937 1175 24 3595 1399 1062 1 1714

5    10   5    6   5    10   5    6  5   10  5    6 5   10  5
20   30   7    13  18   28   33   11 16  26  31   9 14  24  29
20   2    7    13  18   28   5    11 16  26  3    9 14  24  1
7736 2191 4363 370 2603 1929 6238 24 799 699 2178 1 799 937 276

6    5    10   5    6    5    10   5    6    5    10   5   6   5
7    12   22   27   33   10   20   25   31   8    18   23  29  6
7    12   22   27   5    10   20   25   3    8    18   23  1   6
4363 2070 1399 3229 6238 1546 7736 2316 2178 2316 2603 253 276 1175

10  5    6    5    10  5    6    5
16  21   27   32   14  19   25   30
16  21   27   4    14  19   25   2
799 1911 3229 1062 799 1424 2316 2191

Total: 102459 = 3 x 7 x 7 x 17 x 41.

3.1The first and last words: 2205 = 3 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 7.

3.2The first seven words plus the last seven:

276 2191 2178 1062 6238 1175 4363 1929 3229 699 2316 937 253 1399

Total: 28245 = 3 x 5 x 7 x 269.

3.3The first and last thirteen words:

276 2191 2178 1062 6238 1175 4363 2316 1 1546 24 2070 370
1929 3229 699 2316 937 253 1399 1911 7736 1424 2603 3595 799

Total: 52640 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 x 7 x 47.

4.1Beginning with the first word, take every Nth word after. Note only those that produced totals divisible by 7.

4.1.1N = 3.

1   4    7    10   13  16  19   22   25   28
276 1062 4363 1546 370 799 1424 1399 2316 1929

Total: 15484 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 7 x 79.

4.1.2N = 4.

1   5    9 13  17   21   25
276 6238 1 370 3595 1911 2316

Total: 14707 = 7 x 11 x 191.

4.1.3N = 6.

1   7    13  19   25
276 4363 370 1424 2316

Total: 8749 = 13 x 673. SF: 686 = 2 x 7 x 7 x 7.

4.1.4N = 7.

1   8    15   22
276 2316 1714 1399

Total: 5705 = 5 x 7 x 163. SF: 175 = 5 x 5 x 7.

4.1.5N = 8.

1   9 17   25
276 1 3595 2316

Total: 6188 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 13 x 17.

4.1.6The relationship of N: 3 + 4 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 28 = 2 x 2 x 7.

4.2Take every Nth word and add them up.

4.2.1N = 2.

2    4    6    8    10   12   14  16  18   20   22   24  26  28
2191 1062 1175 2316 1546 2070 799 799 2603 7736 1399 937 699 1929

Total: 27261 = 3 x 3 x 13 x 233. SF: 252 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 7. (No feature with the odd positioned words.)

4.2.2N = 4.

4    8    12   16  20   24  28
1062 2316 2070 799 7736 937 1929

Total: 16849 = 7 x 29 x 83. SF: 119 = 7 x 17.

4.2.3N = 7.

7    14  21   28
4363 799 1911 1929

Total: 9002 = 2 x 7 x 643.

4.2.4N = 10.

10   20
1546 7736

Total: 9282 = 2 x 3 x 7 x 13 x 17. SF: 42 = 2 x 3 x 7.

4.2.5The relationship of those giving totals divisible by seven: 4 + 7 + 10 = 21 = 3 x 7.

5.Divide the 28 words into seven sections of four words each.

5.1Odd positioned segments of 4:

276 2191 2178 1062
1 1546 24 2070
3595 2603 1424 7736
2316 699 3229 1929

Total: 32879 = 7 x 7 x 11 x 61.

5.2Even positioned segments of 4:

6238 1175 4363 2316
370 799 1714 799
1911 1399 253 937

Total: 22274 = 2 x 7 x 37 x 43.

6.1Odd valued words:

2    6    7    9 14  16  17   18   21   22   23  24  26  27   28
2191 1175 4363 1 799 799 3595 2603 1911 1399 253 937 699 3229 1929

Total: 25883 = 11 x 13 x 181. (No feature for the even valued words.)

6.2Only the twenty-first word is divisible by 13. (21 = 3 x 7) This word has the value 1911 = 3 x 7 x 7 x 13.

6.3The middle 26 words:

2191 2178 1062 6238 1175 4363 2316 1 1546 24 2070 370 799 1714 799 
3595 2603 1424 7736 1911 1399 253 937 2316 699 3229

Total: 52948 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 31 x 61.

7Following the clue of is, was, and is to come the words can be loaded into different sized tables up to three dimensions. Many words grouped as complementary opposites like Alpha and Omega produce sums divisible by 7. The number features adhere to the meaning of the text itself.

Words In A 7 x 4 Table
276219121781062623811754363
231611546242070370799
171479935952603142477361911
1399253937231669932291929
The table is loaded with words row by row from top to bottom
with each row filled from left to right.

7.1.1First and last columns: 14707 = 7 x 11 x 191 (11 and 191 both showing God). The sum of the factors shows God again with another eleven: 209 = 11 x 19.

7.1.1.2First column: 5705 = 5 x 7 x 163. SF: 175 = 5 x 5 x 7.

7.1.1.3Last column: 9002 = 2 x 7 x 643.

7.1.1.4Columns that are not first or last: 40446 = 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 107.

7.1.2First and last row: 28245 = 3 x 5 x 7 x 269. (Individual rows have no feature.)

7.1.2.2Rows that are not first or last: 26908 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 31 x 31.

7.1.2.3Even positioned rows: 17888 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 13 x 43.

7.1.3Top half of table: 24609 = 3 x 13 x 631. (No feature with lower half.)

7.1.4Two zigzags that do not overlap: 28886 = 2 x 11 x 13 x 101.

7.2

Words In A 4 x 7 Table
276219121781062
6238117543632316
11546242070
3707991714799
3595260314247736
19111399253937
231669932291929
Words are loaded like the previous table.

7.2.1.Perimeter: 39853 = 11 x 3623. (The eleven emphasizes the same one God beginning and end.)

7.2.2.First and last columns: 31556 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 7 x 7 x 23.

7.2.2.2.First column: 14707 = 7 x 11 x 191.

7.2.2.3.Last column: 16849 = 7 x 29 x 83. SF: 119 = 7 x 17.

7.2.2.4.Columns that are not first or last: 23597 = 7 x 3371.

7.2.2.5.Even positioned columns: 27261 = 3 x 3 x 13 x 233. SF: 252 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 7.

7.2.3.First row: 5707 = 13 x 439. (No features with first and last, or last alone.)

7.2.3.2.Odd positioned rows: 32879 = 7 x 7 x 11 x 61.

7.2.3.3.Even positioned rows: 22274 = 2 x 7 x 37 x 43.

7.2.3.4.First and last three rows: 51471 = 3 x 3 x 7 x 19 x 43.

7.2.3.5.Middle row: 3682 = 2 x 7 x 263.

7.2.3.6.The fourth and fifth rows have totals divisible by seven, and so do the first and fourth columns. 4 + 5 + 1 + 4 = 14 (2 x 7).

7.2.4.1.Two zigzags: 19539 = 3 x 3 x 13 x 167.

7.2.4.2.One zigzag: 7413 = 3 x 7 x 353. (Starting at the top left.)

7.3The words can be placed in a three dimensional block: 2 x 2 x 7. (Pass your mouse slowly over the right or bottom edges of the tables to flip through each layer.)

Layer 1
2762191
21781062
Layer 2
62381175
43632316
Layer 3
11546
242070
Layer 4
370799
1714799
Layer 5
35952603
14247736
Layer 6
19111399
253937
Layer 7
2316699
32291929

7.3.1.Diagonal through all layers (top left to bottom right): 31556 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 7 x 7 x 23.

7.3.2.Diagonal through all layers (bottom left to top right): 23597 = 7 x 3371.

7.3.3.Top left corner through all layers: 14707 = 7 x 11 x 191.

7.3.4.Bottom right corner through all layers: 16849 = 7 x 29 x 83.

7.3.5.1.Odd positioned layers: 32879 = 7 x 7 x 11 x 61.

7.3.5.2.Even positioned layers: 22274 = 2 x 7 x 37 x 43.

7.4Now the words are placed in a 7 x 2 x 2 block.

Layer 1
276219121781062623811754363
231611546242070370799
Layer 2
171479935952603142477361911
1399253937231669932291929

7.4.1.First row on first table plus last row on last table: 28245 = 3 x 5 x 7 x 269.

7.4.2.Last row on first table plus first row on last table: 26908 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 31 x 31.

7.4.3.Even positioned columns on the first layer plus odd positioned columns on the second layer: 18431 = 7 x 2633.

7.4.4.Even positioned columns on the first layer: 4823 = 7 x 13 x 53.

7.4.5.Odd positioned columns on the second layer: 13608 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 7.

7.4.6.Bottom half of both layers: 17888 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 13 x 43.

7.4.7.Zigzag (starting at the bottom left) across layer, and copied on next layer: 27261 = 3 x 3 x 13 x 233.

Conclusion

As stated previously, the original language of the text should be the language used for numeric conversion. Chinese is not the original language of the Old or New Testaments. Nevertheless, with some basic changes in bringing the Chinese translations in line with the original languages, features do appear.

For Genesis 1:1, and Exodus 34:6-7, a very minor and logical change was all it took to produce a text that would generate numeric features like the original Hebrew. For John 1:1, no changes were necessary. And finally here in Revelation 1:8, the changes were just a little more involved. If this was all by chance, then this author must have been extremely lucky to hit the jackpot again and again. The only other explanation is that God or an angel pre-arranged all this for easy discovery.

These numbers Numerics Gematria do not prove the Chinese language is a sacred language, or that the Bible in Chinese is holy or special. Far from it! Three out of four verses required changes. The numbers Numerics Gematria explain why it has taken so long to spread the Gospel in China. If the translation is not correct, then missionary work would be seriously impaired and the growth of new Christians stunted.

Unlike missionaries of the past, Western Christians approached evangelization as their own nations were in the process of gaining world ascendancy. They were creatures of their own time and culture. They did not approach the world as the prophets of old who represented the minority view. They were in the world and benefited from the rising power of their own governments. This in itself subtly affected everything they did, and it shows in the translation of the Chinese Bible.

Nevertheless, no matter how much people fail, God’s hand still shines through.

See: God, the Imperial Sovereign for more on Revelation 1:8.

中 國 要 回 歸 上 帝

(For more on China and America in prophecy: Bible Issues.)

The Bible must be read carefully with verse balancing verse. Numbers will not help you do this.

1Most modern translations were made from manuscripts older than those used for the KJV. England in 1611 used some late Byzantine manuscripts, and these were the manuscripts that had the extra words. The majority of the manuscripts do not have the extra words in Revelation 1:8 or 1:11. And definitely not a single one of the oldest manuscripts has these words.

Scholars theorize that a marginal note explaining Alpha and Omega was accidentally copied into a later document for Revelation 1:8.

But how does one explain Revelation 1:11? I personally have experienced copying from the wrong line. When one is myopic, tired, and working with crammed text it can happen. An uncoordinated eye can register text from a previous line (I am Alpha and Omega). A scribe might unconsciously change the rest of the wording to first and last avoiding a complete duplication which would alert the copyist.

2The Chinese New Version came out not too long ago. It was the first translation done by Chinese scholars from the original languages. Unfortunately, Western influence still creeps through, and 上 帝 is still avoided probably because of the theory of the Trinity.

3Source: https://chinesestandardbible.com/ (accessed June 21, 2019 through https://biblehub.com).

4The word 的 modifies or identifies the noun after it. The words before 的 function as adjectives of the noun following 的. See section 26.3 in Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar by Claudia Ross and Jing-Heng Sheng Ma (Routledge, UK 2006).

5The Hebrew or Greek text is from Bibleworks 3.0 by Hermeneutika, Michael S. Bushell, 1995, translated into HTML entities. Vowel (or accent) marks and punctuation from the Hebrew and Greek have been removed.

6If we are going to follow the original Greek as exactly as possible, what about the very last phrase 那 一 位 是 全 能 者 (that one person [who] is the Almighty)? In the Greek for Revelation 1:8, the Almighty follows right after the list of is, was, is to come. There is no verb, and there is no word for person. Should not 那 一 位 是 be dropped?

The word 的, just before this phrase is a noun modifier, and 那 一 位 (that one who) is the noun. Words before 的 function as adjectives or qualities of 那 一 位. The phrase just before 的 (今 在 昔 在 將 要 來 臨 meaning is, was, will come) are the qualities of 那 一 位. And 那 一 位 is the 是 全 能 者 (is all mighty person).

Leaving this phrase in adds emphasis, clarifying that everything from the beginning of the verse up to this point refers solely to the one who is Almighty. Removing it removes the emphasis on God’s sole ownership of these attributes. Even though such a phrase is not in the Greek, it seems appropriate.

Perhaps more important is the fact that the definite article ο precedes each period of time in the Greek, and the Chinese language has no definite article. Chinese uses demonstrators or specifiers. And in this case, the specifier is 那, or that (one). There is no other way to bring across the Greek definite article.

(Keeping this phrase gives the verse twenty-eight words, a number that any Chinese person would favour. Removing this phrase will give the verse twenty-four words, a number many Chinese would dislike.)

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